Care and Management of Breeding Bull:
The bull is said to be ‘half of the herd’, It is because the offspring receive 50 percent of inheritance from the bull. Therefore, the quality of the future herd is dependent on the quality of bulls maintained. “
The bull should be reared under optimum management conditions from an early age so that it is gentle in behavior.
The following steps are needed under standard management of Care and Management of Breeding Bull.
1. Separation of bull calf :
Bull calves should be separated from female calves and housed in separate pens.
2. Feeding :
a) Feeding of growing: A ration of young growing bull must contain l2 to 15 percent DCP and 70 percent TDN. Legume hay may be given @1kg. per 100 kg body weight of breeding bull. 1.5 to 2.0kg concentrate is also supplied according to breed and size of animals
b) Feeding of bull in service: Breeding bull should be fed good quality roughage and sufficient concentrates to keep them thrifty, but not fat.When the bull is receiving a liberal supply of good quality forage, it needs an additional 2-3 kg concentrate mixture of 13to 15 percent protein. Feeding excess of silage or hay is undesirable as it will make the bull paunchy and less efficient in mating.
The bull should be housed in a separate bull pen measuring 15′ by 10′ in dimensions, having an adequate arrangement of light and ventilation and an entrance 5 feet in width and 7 in height will make comfortable housing for the bull. The feeding and watering arrangement should be made in the bull pen and paddock.
The bull should have free access to an exercise yard provided with a boundary wall of about 2 m in height i.e. too high for the bull to jump over.
4. Exercise of bull:
Exercise is needed to keep normal appetite, retain breeding power, and good health of a breeding bull.Bulls that received plenty of exercise produce larger ejaculation containing more sperms of higher activity.So bulls should be exercised for 12 to 15 minutes by use of specially constructed bull exerciser.
Bulls should be trained at an early are as they age as they can safely be handled and easily trained at this age. In case the ball is regularly tied in the pen a strong halter may be used.
For safe handling, the bull may be kept without horns. Dehorning should be done at an early age of bull calf, because such bułls are less dangerous to handle.
7. Ringing of bull:
A ring made up of nonrusting metal like copper or aluminum of diameter 2.5inch should be put in the nose of the bull at the age of 1 year. Bull ring is used for better control of the bull. (There are two types of bullnose ring l)self-piercing, 2) non-piercing type
In the case of a self-piercing nose ring, the pointed edge is pierced through the nasal septum and fixed with a screw. While using the non-piercing type of nose ring. the thin cartilage of nasal septum is pierced with the help of sterile trocar and canula.)
8. Service from bull:
The young bull of 1.5 to 2 years is used for service once a week while bulls above 2.5 years age may be used for two services per week.
[If the bull is not used for a few weeks then the first ejaculate should be discarded
as it will contain large numbers of dead spermatozoa.]
9. Miscellaneous Care:
1. Brushing and grooming are advisable in the morning hours.
2. Hair on sheath must be clipped for clean semen production.
3. Teasing to the bull is avoided.