Care and Management of Milking Cows :

A. Feeding:

1. The adequate clean and freshwater should be provided to the milking cow.

2. Calcium and phosphorus should provide through bone meal or mineral mixture to prevent milk fever in high yielders.

3. While feeding green legumes, also provide dry fodder to ensure adequate consumption of dry matter and to avoid the possibility of bloat.

4. Concentrate allowance is given at the time of milking which stimulates the process of let down of milk.

5. For indigenous cow,1kg of concentrate mixture per 2.5 to 3 kg. of milk produced is given in addition to maintenance. For crossbred cows, this proportion is 1 kg per 2 to 2.5 kg of milk produced.

6. About 15 days of calving, give slightly more quantity of concentrate than the actual product which is called as lead feeding or challenge or feeding.

B. Housing:

1. The milking cows should be housed in separate pens.

2. Milking cows should protect from environmental stress like heat, rain, cold, and wind.

3. Also, proper drainage, ventilation, and exposure to sunlight must be there.

4. Flooring should be hard impervious, nonslippery, and with slope.

C. Management:

1. Milking: The udder and teats should be washed with warm water mixed with KMNo4, solution, and wiped to dry before milking. Milking should be gentle, quick, and complete by suitable method. It should be completed within 7 minutes. The milking time and interval between two successive milkings should be kept constant.

2. Grooming: Grooming helps in clean and hygienic milk removes loose hairs, dust, dirt, and ectoparasites on the milking cows. Regular grooming helps to keep skin clean and helps to feel the animal fresh by reducing tiredness and fatigue.

3.Exercise: The cows should be provided free movement in paddock hence they feel comfortable and get needed exercise to them.

4. Control of ectoparasites and endoparasites: Spraying of insecticide should be done in cattle shed and on the animal body. It controls the ectoparasitic infestation viz. lice, ticks, flies, mites, etc. Milking cows

should be dewormed at least twice in a year to control endoparasitic infestation viz. roundworms, tapeworms, liver flukes, etc.

5.Control of disease: The prevention and control of disease of the herd is  Most important. To achieve this, keep the sanitation by keeping. the housing and other places clean and regularly disinfected. Many diseases are also prevented by timely vaccination.

6.Breeding: milking cow should be bred at 60 days after the date of parturition, which helps good reproductive health of the cow.