Livestock Production and Management
Scope of Livestock Management in National Economy
- The general scenario of livestock management (Cattle – 218.8 million, Buffalo – 105.7 million, Sheep – 75.5 million, Goat – 168 million, Poultry – 0.96 million, Total Livestock Production – 568.96 million)
- Milk Production:- FAO -2017-18 – 156.00 million tonnes
- Farmyard manure
- Scope in leather industries
- Beef & Veal production
- Draft power of animals
- Animal byproducts
- Employment Generation
Importance of Livestock Management in National Economy
- Integral part of Indian economy
- India possesses the largest livestock population in the world i.e. 512.06 million. Accounts nearly 19 to 20 per cent of the world.
- Present livestock population in India (million)
Cattle – 190.9, Buffaloes – 108.7, Sheep – 61.06, Goat – 135.17, Pig – 10.29, Poultry – 729.2
- The livestock sector contributes nearly 25.6% to agril. GDP, whereas 4.11% in the national GDP.
- The value of output from the livestock sector in 2012 – 13 is Rs. 537535 crore (Share of the milk industry in the livestock sector GDP is 67%), Meat group 18%, Poultry meat 8%.
2. Milk Production
India ranks 1st in the milk production with 155.5 million tonnes of milk production in the year (2015-16).
3. Meat production
Flesh foods are rich in protein and a good source of vitamin B 12 which helps in bodybuilding. Which absent in the plant food. Average meat production 7.02 MT and produce 82.93 billion eggs (2015-16).
4. Fiber and Skins
The livestock also contributes to the production of wool, hair, hides, and pelts. Leather is the most important product which has a very high export potential. India is producing about 47.9 million Kg of wool per annum.
5. Animal drought power
The bullock pair backbone of agriculture. The horsepower obtained from one bullock pair is about 0.75 HP, Mechanization of agriculture has been done only 30%. Draft animal power saves six million tones of fossil fuel per year, valued at Rs. 12000 crores.
6. Farmyard manure for organic farming
A minimum of 10-12Kg of dung is obtained on an average from every cow or buffalo and an excellent source of FYM or compost manure. Dung cakes used for fuel also. Helpful in maintaining the soil Fertility, Helpful in maintaining the carbon: nitrogen ratio.
About 2/3 of rural transportation is carried by bullock carts. Rural transportation is estimated to 25000 million ton-km of freight per year saving 6 million of diesel worth Rs. 4000 crores annually.
8. Livestock export
India’s export of animal products was Rs. 30,137.08 crores in 2015-16, the major products are buffalo meat Rs. 26681.56 crores, Sheep and Goat meat Rs. 837.76 crores, Poultry products Rs. 768.72 crores, Dairy products Rs. 754.20 crores, Animal casing Rs. 17.02 crores, processed meat Rs 6.18 crores.
9. Employment generation
The livestock sector provides or generates regular employment to millions of people. About 20.5 million people depend on livestock for their livelihood. Livestock provides livelihood to two-third of a rural community.
Various Livestock Management & Development Programme
- Key village scheme (K.V.S)
- Intensive Cattle Development Project (ICDP)
- Central Herd Registration Scheme (CHRS)
- All India Co-ordinated Research Project (AICRP)
- Technology Mission on Dairy Developments
- National Project for Cattle & Buffalo Breeding (NPCBB)
- Integrated Dairy Developments Programme (IDDP)
- Strengthen Infrastructure for Quality & Clean mills Production
- Assistance to co-operatives
- Venture Capital Fund for Dairy & Poultry sector
- Central Fodder Development Organization Scheme
- Livestock Health & Disease Control Scheme
- National Dairy Plan
- Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna (RKVY)
What is Livestock Management?
Livestock management is an art & science which consists of ideas, facilities, resources that can convert into the meat, milk, eggs, wool, & manure production for worthwhile products into the market successfully.
Livestock management is a management capacity that can convert the resources into the returns or profit.
Pillars of Livestock Management:
- Housing (Shelter)
- Feeding (Scientific)
- Heeding of animals or Health cover
Organic Livestock farming
Organic livestock farming may be defined as a system of livestock production that promotes the use of organic and biodegradable inputs from the ecosystem in terms of animal nutrition, animal health, animal housing, and breeding. It deliberately avoids the use of synthetic inputs such as drugs, feed additives, and genetically engineered breeding inputs, while ensuring the welfare of animals.
Advantages of organic livestock farming
- It ensures strict animal welfare measures.
- Recognize animal comfort and animal behavior.
- It is better for the environment.
- Better sustainability of productions.
- Boost to traditional technologies.
- It is free from antibiotics, chemicals, drugs, pesticides, etc.
- It has better protein quality.
- Veterinary costs are generally significantly lower on organic farms than conventional farms.
The adaptation strategies is a process for reducing the negative effect of climate change on livestock production through appropriate adjustment and changes. The following are the adaptation strategies for reducing the negative effect of climate change on livestock production.
- Development of tolerant breeds.
- technology Integration.
- Nutritional management.
- Shelter management.
- Mitigating methane emission from livestock production system.
Integrated crop-livestock system
An integrated crop-livestock system is a form of mixed production that utilizes crops and livestock in a way that they can complement one another through space and time. Livestock is the backbone of an integrated farming system, which graze a pasture to build up the soil. Eventually, sufficient soil organic matter builds up to the point where crops can be supported. Animals can also be used for farm operations and transport. While crop residues provide fodder for livestock and grain provides supplementary feed for productive animals.
Animals play a key and multiple roles in the functioning of the farm and not only because they provide livestock products (meat, milk, egg, wool, and hides) or can be converted into prompt cash in times of need. Animal transport plant energy into useful work. Livestock also provide manure and other types of animal waste. Animal excreta have two crucial roles in the overall sustainability of the system i.e. (i) improving nutrient cycling and (ii) providing energy for the production of biogas and energy for household use.
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